Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is responsible for 126,000 deaths per year. A large Harvard study found that good nutrition can help you avoid this disease. For example, fruits, vegetables, whole grains and fish promote healthy lungs and reduce the risk. In contrast, refined grains, red meat, and cured meats increase the risk.
Source: Harvard Men’s Health Watch, 2010, vol 14, No. 7, pp 1-3.

If sweet foods are fed to a pregnant woman, the infant will be more likely to eat them following birth.
Source: B. Popkin. The World is Fat. Avery, NY, 2009, p. 32.

“...slow and protracted juvenile growth could potentially yield large increases in lifespan. ..... Reduced growth is more generally associated with longevity extension than calorie restriction.”
Source: Rollo CD. Overview of research on giant transgenic mice with emphasis on the brain and aging. In: Samaras TT (ed). Human Body Size and The Laws of Scaling: Physiological, Performance, Growth, Longevity and Ecological Ramifications. Nova Science Publishers, NY, 2007. p 244.

Height shrinkage is absent in traditional societies until at least 60 years of age.
Source: Lindeberg S, Berntorp E, et al. Age relations of cardiovascular risk factors in a traditional Melanesian society: the Kitava Study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1997, 66: 845-852. p 851.

Birth weight is linearly related to obesity although short and premature babies are also at increased risk of obesity..
Source: Mardones F, Villarroel L, et al. Association of perinatal factors and obesity in 6- to 8-year-old Chilean children. International Journal of Epidemiology, 2008, 37: 902-910.

“In general, chronic disease such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as some cancers, appear to have been uncommon, even in older people, until recent history.”

Source:  Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. World Cancer Research Fund / American Institute of Cancer Research, Washington, DC: AICR, 2007, p. 352.