Publication of Interest – Oct 2020

"Biodemography and Social Biology:" Samaras TT. (2020) Height and longevity—a changing viewpoint. WJPPS, 9 (9): 570-574 controller/abstract id/12979

Samaras, T. T., Marson, S. M., & Lillis, J. P. (2019). International Data Demonstrating the Inverse Height and Life Expectancy Between the Sexes: Height and life expectancy.


Wilhelmsen Wilhelmsen and collegues tracked 67-year old men to 80 years of age and found that men who were shorter at 67 years tend to have better survival that taller men. See page 8 in Wilhelmsen L, Svardsudd K, Eriksson H, et al. Factors associated with reaching 90 years of age: a study of men born in 1913 in Gothenburg, Sweden. J Intern Med 2011; 269:441-451.

"Biodemography and Social Biology" recently published a new paper on height and the longevity of Sardinian men.

This study supports over 12 previous longevity and over 20 mortality studies that have found that shorter height promotes greater longevity. Sardinia is known as a blue zone because it has a remarkably high percentage of long-lived people.

Sardinians are shorter than people in the rest of Europe and tend to live longer. Within Sardinia, there is a group of 14 municipalities that exhibit higher longevity compared to the rest of the island. In addition, as height declines among these municipalities, longevity increases with the shortest municipaliity, Villagrande Strisaili, having the greatest longevity. Professor Poulain, University of Louvain (Belgium) and Dr. Salaris, University of Cagliari (Italy), led a study to determine whether there was a relationship between height and longevity among almost 500 males born between 1866 and 1915. Thomas Samaras, a San Diego longevity researcher, coauthored the paper. Their research found that shorter men lived about 2 years longer than taller men. The results of the study were published in the journal, Biodemography and Social Biology (4/26/12).

This Sardinian study is consistent with a study conducted in Spain by Dr. Holzenberger. This study tracked 1.3 million men through a 70-year period and found that longevity increased with reduced height. Similar results were found in an Ohio study by Professor Dennis Miller based on about 1700 men and women. Samaras, a longevity researcher, found similar results based on baseball players, California veterans, football players, basketball players and famous people. Professor Krakauer also found that shorter elderly Swedish men and women live longer. A recent review by Professor Bartke appeared in Gerontology which supports these findings as well: DOI: 10.1159/000335166

Salaris and Poulain reported that height is only one factor in how long anyone will live. It probably constitutes less than 10% of anyone’s longevity profile. Regardless of height, anyone can extend his or her longevity by healthful nutrition, low body weight, exercise, good medical care, a positive and happy spirit, and good social relations. Therefore, tall people have the potential to reach 100 years under the right conditions.

Tom Samaras Publication of Interest

World Nutrition recently published a commentary by Samaras: Human growth, height, size: Reasons to be small.

The commentary described the various reasons that a world population of shorter and lighter people would  improve our health and increase our chances of long-term survival. For example, smaller people require less energy, food, water, minerals, and metals. While a few tall individuals are not a problem, the world trend in increasing body size requires huge increases in various resources. In addition, bigger people produce more garbage, pollution, carbon dioxide and global heating. Thus, when environmentalists focus on how many people the earth can support but ignore their average size, they are missing a major portion of the problems related to a growing human population.

Tom sees a diet that focuses on producing long-term health and longevity as the best way to ensure a higher life quality and improves the chances of long-term human survival. Thus, he thinks that promoting increased birth weight, rapid growth and reaching one’s maximum height potential harms the individual and humanity because numerous studies have found that a well-balanced but reduced calorie diet promotes health and longevity. Nutritional scientists need to develop recommendations that will produced healthy infants, children and adults without excessive growth in height and weight.

Tom also points out that increased body size aggravates our economic woes because bigger humans require so many more resources and the diet that produces bigger size also promotes chronic diseases. The world cannot sustain the increasing medical costs related to the present trend towards greater weight and illness. In a previous paper, he found that a 20% increase in height with the same body proportions as we have now, will increase costs by $3 trillion per year in the US alone.

The paper also summarizes the achievements of shorter-than-average people.

Paper Published by Samaras

The Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine recently published a special report by Samaras: Ramifications of increasing birth weight, accelerated growth and greater height on health, the obesity epidemic and longevity.

This paper evaluates the harmful impact of increasing birth weight, accelerate growth, early sexual maturation and increased height and body weight on our health, chronic disease and longevity. These factors are also examined in terms of their impact on the obesity epidemic and health care costs.

The biological factors related to body size and longevity are summarized. These include telomere reduction, cell replication, DNA damage, heart problems, relative organ size and exposure to increased toxins and bacteria.

New information on the relation of the Great Depression, famine, caloric restriction, plant based diets, animal protein consumption, and longevity is also presented. The physical characteristics of centenarians is also reviewed.

Other Publications of Interest

Thomas T. Samaras, Commentary. Human growth, height, size: Reasons to be small, World Nutrition, 2011, 2,3:108-135. To read the article click here. For translation in 21 languages of this commentary click here.

Thomas T. Samaras, Ramifications of increasing birth weight, accelerated growth, and greater height on health, the obesity epidemic, and longevity, Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine, 2010, 5(8): 433-449. To read the article click here.
(Note: At lower right below Abstract, press HTML or PDF to see entire paper.)

Killewo J, Heggenhougen HK, Quah SR (eds) Epidemiology and Demography in Public Health, San Diego, Academic Press, 2010. Longevity in Specific Populations, TT Samaras, pp. 415-420.

Book Highlights

The following highlights the content of "Human Body Size and the Laws of Scaling". Excerpts from book reviews are located at the end of the book description. These reviews appeared in Public Health Nutrition (Cambridge University Press), British Journal of Sports Medicine, Economics and Human Biology, The Gerontologist, the Quarterly Review of Biology, and The Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine.

"Human Body Size and the Laws of Scaling" is the only book to systematically evaluate the various advantages and disadvantages of increasing human height. From an individual standpoint, the book examines whether greater height leads to improved physical and mental performance, better health and greater longevity. From an ecological standpoint, the book illustrates that the number of people in the world is only half of the problem of overpopulation since 9 billion people who are taller and weigh 200 pounds consume many more resources than 9 billion people who weigh 150 pounds. From an ecological perspective, it makes little difference whether this weight is due to obesity or simply larger lean body mass.

The book also examines a variety of other topics, including the impact of nutrition on birth weight, childhood growth, early sexual maturation, adult health and longevity. Several hidden causes of obesity are also described. The evolutionary aspects of body size and its survival costs are also reviewed.

In addition, the book provides unexpected findings on how human height impacts physical performance, accident risks, cancer, heart disease, diabetes, longevity, intelligence, resource and water needs, economics, and the environment. Biological factors related to height and longevity are also discussed.

The evidence presented includes a wide variety of studies, very large population samples, and diverse populations. The chapters are listed on the next page and the book contains over 1000 peer-reviewed references. However, the material covered in the book is based on over 5000 references.

No other book provides:

(1) a systematic overview on the ramifications of increasing body size and

(2) a wealth of little-known facts on body size and its relation to health, longevity, intelligence, physical performance, resource consumption, economics, and ecology.

Book Reviewer Comments

Several book reviewer comments are given under BOOK REVIEWS, p. 1 of 4.

Chapter Contents:

  1. Why the Study of Human Size is Important
  2. Human Scaling and the Body Mass Index
  3. Advantages of Taller Human Height
  4. Advantages of Shorter Human Height
  5. Body Height and its Relation to Chronic Disease and Longevity
  6. BMI and Weight: Their Relation to Diabetes, CVD, Cancer and All-Cause Mortality
  7. The Obesity Epidemic, Birth weight, Rapid Growth and Superior Nutrition
  8. Long-lived Mutant, Gene Knockout and Transgenic Mice
  9. The Evolutionary Ecology of Body Size with Special Reference to Allometry and Survivorship
  10. Overview of Research on Giant Transgenic Mice with Emphasis on the Brain and Aging Speculations on the Evolutionary Ecology of Homo Sapiens with Special Reference to Body Size, Allometry and Survivorship, Birthweight, Height, Brain Size and Intellectual Ability
  11. Impact of Body Size on Resources, Pollution, the Environment and Economics
  12. Final Remarks on Human Size, Scaling and Ecological Implications

Appendix A: Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations used in text

Appendix B: Technical review of the molecular and physiological aspects relevant to body size, free radicals and aging



Andrzej Bartke, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine

C. David Rollo, Department of Biology, McMaster University, Canada

Thomas T. Samaras, Reventropy Associates, San Diego, Ca

Citation Data

The book's citation is: Human Body Size and the Laws of Scaling – Physiological, Performance, Growth, Longevity and Ecological Ramifications. Ed: T. Samaras. Publisher: Nova Science Publishers, NY, 2007.  ISBN: 13 978-1-60021-408-0

Copies are usually available from:


Nova Science Publishers, New York (provides discount) - click here (may be out of stock):  - click here


Barnes&Noble: - click here

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