Publication of Interest – Oct 2020

"Biodemography and Social Biology:" Samaras TT. (2020) Height and longevity—a changing viewpoint. WJPPS, 9 (9): 570-574 controller/abstract id/12979

Samaras, T. T., Marson, S. M., & Lillis, J. P. (2019). International Data Demonstrating the Inverse Height and Life Expectancy Between the Sexes: Height and life expectancy.


Wilhelmsen Wilhelmsen and collegues tracked 67-year old men to 80 years of age and found that men who were shorter at 67 years tend to have better survival that taller men. See page 8 in Wilhelmsen L, Svardsudd K, Eriksson H, et al. Factors associated with reaching 90 years of age: a study of men born in 1913 in Gothenburg, Sweden. J Intern Med 2011; 269:441-451.

"Biodemography and Social Biology" recently published a new paper on height and the longevity of Sardinian men.

This study supports over 12 previous longevity and over 20 mortality studies that have found that shorter height promotes greater longevity. Sardinia is known as a blue zone because it has a remarkably high percentage of long-lived people.

Sardinians are shorter than people in the rest of Europe and tend to live longer. Within Sardinia, there is a group of 14 municipalities that exhibit higher longevity compared to the rest of the island. In addition, as height declines among these municipalities, longevity increases with the shortest municipaliity, Villagrande Strisaili, having the greatest longevity. Professor Poulain, University of Louvain (Belgium) and Dr. Salaris, University of Cagliari (Italy), led a study to determine whether there was a relationship between height and longevity among almost 500 males born between 1866 and 1915. Thomas Samaras, a San Diego longevity researcher, coauthored the paper. Their research found that shorter men lived about 2 years longer than taller men. The results of the study were published in the journal, Biodemography and Social Biology (4/26/12).

This Sardinian study is consistent with a study conducted in Spain by Dr. Holzenberger. This study tracked 1.3 million men through a 70-year period and found that longevity increased with reduced height. Similar results were found in an Ohio study by Professor Dennis Miller based on about 1700 men and women. Samaras, a longevity researcher, found similar results based on baseball players, California veterans, football players, basketball players and famous people. Professor Krakauer also found that shorter elderly Swedish men and women live longer. A recent review by Professor Bartke appeared in Gerontology which supports these findings as well: DOI: 10.1159/000335166

Salaris and Poulain reported that height is only one factor in how long anyone will live. It probably constitutes less than 10% of anyone’s longevity profile. Regardless of height, anyone can extend his or her longevity by healthful nutrition, low body weight, exercise, good medical care, a positive and happy spirit, and good social relations. Therefore, tall people have the potential to reach 100 years under the right conditions.

Tom Samaras Publication of Interest

World Nutrition recently published a commentary by Samaras: Human growth, height, size: Reasons to be small.

The commentary described the various reasons that a world population of shorter and lighter people would  improve our health and increase our chances of long-term survival. For example, smaller people require less energy, food, water, minerals, and metals. While a few tall individuals are not a problem, the world trend in increasing body size requires huge increases in various resources. In addition, bigger people produce more garbage, pollution, carbon dioxide and global heating. Thus, when environmentalists focus on how many people the earth can support but ignore their average size, they are missing a major portion of the problems related to a growing human population.

Tom sees a diet that focuses on producing long-term health and longevity as the best way to ensure a higher life quality and improves the chances of long-term human survival. Thus, he thinks that promoting increased birth weight, rapid growth and reaching one’s maximum height potential harms the individual and humanity because numerous studies have found that a well-balanced but reduced calorie diet promotes health and longevity. Nutritional scientists need to develop recommendations that will produced healthy infants, children and adults without excessive growth in height and weight.

Tom also points out that increased body size aggravates our economic woes because bigger humans require so many more resources and the diet that produces bigger size also promotes chronic diseases. The world cannot sustain the increasing medical costs related to the present trend towards greater weight and illness. In a previous paper, he found that a 20% increase in height with the same body proportions as we have now, will increase costs by $3 trillion per year in the US alone.

The paper also summarizes the achievements of shorter-than-average people.

Paper Published by Samaras

The Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine recently published a special report by Samaras: Ramifications of increasing birth weight, accelerated growth and greater height on health, the obesity epidemic and longevity.

This paper evaluates the harmful impact of increasing birth weight, accelerate growth, early sexual maturation and increased height and body weight on our health, chronic disease and longevity. These factors are also examined in terms of their impact on the obesity epidemic and health care costs.

The biological factors related to body size and longevity are summarized. These include telomere reduction, cell replication, DNA damage, heart problems, relative organ size and exposure to increased toxins and bacteria.

New information on the relation of the Great Depression, famine, caloric restriction, plant based diets, animal protein consumption, and longevity is also presented. The physical characteristics of centenarians is also reviewed.

Other Publications of Interest

Thomas T. Samaras, Commentary. Human growth, height, size: Reasons to be small, World Nutrition, 2011, 2,3:108-135. To read the article click here. For translation in 21 languages of this commentary click here.

Thomas T. Samaras, Ramifications of increasing birth weight, accelerated growth, and greater height on health, the obesity epidemic, and longevity, Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine, 2010, 5(8): 433-449. To read the article click here.
(Note: At lower right below Abstract, press HTML or PDF to see entire paper.)

Killewo J, Heggenhougen HK, Quah SR (eds) Epidemiology and Demography in Public Health, San Diego, Academic Press, 2010. Longevity in Specific Populations, TT Samaras, pp. 415-420.

Book Highlights

The following highlights the content of "Human Body Size and the Laws of Scaling". Excerpts from book reviews are located at the end of the book description. These reviews appeared in Public Health Nutrition (Cambridge University Press), British Journal of Sports Medicine, Economics and Human Biology, The Gerontologist, the Quarterly Review of Biology, and The Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine.

"Human Body Size and the Laws of Scaling" is the only book to systematically evaluate the various advantages and disadvantages of increasing human height. From an individual standpoint, the book examines whether greater height leads to improved physical and mental performance, better health and greater longevity. From an ecological standpoint, the book illustrates that the number of people in the world is only half of the problem of overpopulation since 9 billion people who are taller and weigh 200 pounds consume many more resources than 9 billion people who weigh 150 pounds. From an ecological perspective, it makes little difference whether this weight is due to obesity or simply larger lean body mass.

The book also examines a variety of other topics, including the impact of nutrition on birth weight, childhood growth, early sexual maturation, adult health and longevity. Several hidden causes of obesity are also described. The evolutionary aspects of body size and its survival costs are also reviewed.

In addition, the book provides unexpected findings on how human height impacts physical performance, accident risks, cancer, heart disease, diabetes, longevity, intelligence, resource and water needs, economics, and the environment. Biological factors related to height and longevity are also discussed.

The evidence presented includes a wide variety of studies, very large population samples, and diverse populations. The chapters are listed on the next page and the book contains over 1000 peer-reviewed references. However, the material covered in the book is based on over 5000 references.

No other book provides:

(1) a systematic overview on the ramifications of increasing body size and

(2) a wealth of little-known facts on body size and its relation to health, longevity, intelligence, physical performance, resource consumption, economics, and ecology.

Book Reviewer Comments

Several book reviewer comments are given under BOOK REVIEWS, p. 1 of 4.

Chapter Contents:

  1. Why the Study of Human Size is Important
  2. Human Scaling and the Body Mass Index
  3. Advantages of Taller Human Height
  4. Advantages of Shorter Human Height
  5. Body Height and its Relation to Chronic Disease and Longevity
  6. BMI and Weight: Their Relation to Diabetes, CVD, Cancer and All-Cause Mortality
  7. The Obesity Epidemic, Birth weight, Rapid Growth and Superior Nutrition
  8. Long-lived Mutant, Gene Knockout and Transgenic Mice
  9. The Evolutionary Ecology of Body Size with Special Reference to Allometry and Survivorship
  10. Overview of Research on Giant Transgenic Mice with Emphasis on the Brain and Aging Speculations on the Evolutionary Ecology of Homo Sapiens with Special Reference to Body Size, Allometry and Survivorship, Birthweight, Height, Brain Size and Intellectual Ability
  11. Impact of Body Size on Resources, Pollution, the Environment and Economics
  12. Final Remarks on Human Size, Scaling and Ecological Implications

Appendix A: Symbols, Acronyms and Abbreviations used in text

Appendix B: Technical review of the molecular and physiological aspects relevant to body size, free radicals and aging



Andrzej Bartke, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine

C. David Rollo, Department of Biology, McMaster University, Canada

Thomas T. Samaras, Reventropy Associates, San Diego, Ca

Citation Data

The book's citation is: Human Body Size and the Laws of Scaling – Physiological, Performance, Growth, Longevity and Ecological Ramifications. Ed: T. Samaras. Publisher: Nova Science Publishers, NY, 2007.  ISBN: 13 978-1-60021-408-0

Copies are usually available from:


Nova Science Publishers, New York (provides discount) - click here (may be out of stock):  - click here


Barnes&Noble: - click here

The book has been reviewed by a number of journals. Reviewer comments are given below:

  • SM Marson, University of North Carolina, Department of Social Work, in Public Health Nutrition (Cambridge University Press), 2009, 12, 1299-1300.

"Human Body Size and the Laws of Scaling is an outstanding and revelatory book."

"It is quite extraordinary to discover a book with such a wide range of potential professional readerships."

"The writing style and content is written for those with specialties in both the natural and social sciences. This has been a Herculean task, and Thomas Samaras has succeeded."

"Human Body Size and the Laws of Scaling is an important multi-disciplinary work that goes beyond public health and nutrition professionals. I recommend this volume for every academic library."

"Professional policy makers should have access to and read this volume. Thomas Samaras's work should inspire legislators. In addition, college educated citizens who have a general interest in the earth ecology will want to read it.  For them, most public libraries should acquire it."

  • D. Labadarios, Professor, SAJCN, Editor's Note: S Afr J Clin. Nutr, 2009, 22 (4), 167.

“….Samaras' acclaimed book, provides new insights on human body size, challenges current recommendations for growth and height, argues on the basis of some credible evidence that Western diseases, the primary cause of later-life mortality, correlate with changes in nutrition, lifestyle and increasing body size….”

  • JCK Wells, University College London, Institute of Child Health, in Economics and Human Biology, 2008, 6: 489-491:

"This book is packed with ideas, and I challenge any reader working within the field of human growth to read even one chapter without achieving new insights into their area of expertise."

"...I thoroughly enjoyed reading the chapters, and was rewarded with a range of novel points, new perspectives and the kind of facts that one continues mulling over for some time afterwards."

"I strongly recommend the book to academics across a wide range of disciplines and suspect that many will find themselves challenging their long-held views about the association between growth and health."

  • D. Pyne, Dept of Physiology, Australian Institute of Sport. BMJ Group Blogs: British Journal of Sports Medicine, 8 Oct, 2008

"Is the substantial increase in human height and weight over the last century a positive development for society and individuals within society in terms of physical performance, health and longevity? If this question generates a personal interest then this book on human body size is worth finding."

"There are also useful insights into the obesity epidemic that now challenges practitioners and policymakers around the world."

"This public health issue has seemingly arisen quickly over the last decade or two and the underlying experimental and epidemiological work discussed in the book is pertinent and well-received."

  • Robert Arking, Biological Sciences, Wayne State University, in The Gerontologist, 2008, 48: 549-553:

"He [Samaras] has brought together much disparate data into an interesting and useful whole." p. 552

"This book marshals and examines the available data to reach some extraordinary conclusions." p. 552

"He [Samaras] carefully sorts out and analyzes the often conflicting data relating BMI to disease and/or longevity, pointing out a bevy of confounding variables, and drawing considered opinions on what they all mean." p. 552

  • DE Sandberg, Pediatrics, University of Michigan Medical School in The Quarterly Review of Biology, June 2008, p 213:

" Would parents of short, but otherwise healthy, children be as inclined to risk the potential long-term health risks of long-term treatment with pharmacological doses of rhGH if they were apprised of the perspective outlined in this book?"

  • Community Health Care Library, May 4, 2007:

"...the ideas and research in this book [are] quite fascinating."

  • Leonid Gavrilov, Center on Aging, University of Chicago, 2008

"This book provides the most comprehensive coverage available of the human body and its relation to a variety of extrinsic and intrinsic factors."

  • Longevity Science Blog, 2007

"This unique book takes a systems approach to human size and its relation to various aspects of life, including changes in biochemical factors, chronic disease risk, nutrition and longevity."

  • Mark Houston, Hong Kong medical researcher, May 11, 2008

" Your book was fantastic, absolutely unique."

  • The Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine, 2007

"....a wonderful book."

Publications on Human Body Size:

Samaras TT. (2020) Height and longevity—a changing viewpoint. WJPPS, 9 (9): 570-574 abstract id/12979

Samaras, T. T., Marson, S. M., & Lillis, J. P. (2019). International Data Demonstrating the Inverse Height and Life Expectancy Between the Sexes: Height and life expectancy. SOCIALSCI JOURNAL, 4, 1-9.

Samaras T, Marson S, Lillis J. (2018). The close inverse relationship between male and female height and life expectancy. Innovation in Aging, 2(suppl_1), 888-889.

Samaras TT. (2118) Hidden benefits of shorter, smaller bodies. 2018. JSRR. 19(2): 1-7, 2018; article no. JSRR.40878.

Samaras TT. (2018) Harmful ramifications of secular growth. Cardiovasc Disord Med. 3:

Samaras TT. (2018). Implications of excessive nutrition and increased body height and weight. Annals of Nutrition & Food Science. 2(6), Article 1037.

Samaras TT. (2018). What’s good about being shorter. SOJ Psychol 5(1): 1-4: DOI:

Samaras TT,  Biological parameters explain why shorter or smaller people have lower cardiovascular disease and greater longevity. 2017. JSRR. 15(1): 1-16, 2017; Article no. JSRR.34729. Doi:10.9734/JSRR/2017/34729

Samaras TT, Health risks of higher birth weight, rapid growth, early maturation and taller height. Women’s Health Bulletin. 2015 July; 2(3): e26805.

Samaras, TT. Longevity in specific populations. Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences. Elsevier, 2014. Doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-801238-3.02878-6.

Samaras T. Human size. The biology of why it is best to be small [Feedback]. World Nutrition February 2014, 5, 2, 197-199.

Samaras Thomas T. Why Smaller Humans are in our Future. Policy Innovations, Carnegie Council. 10/20/2014

Samaras TT. Evidence from eight different types of studies showing that smaller body size is related to greater longevity, Journal of Scientific Research & Reports. 2014, 3(16): 2150-2160. 

Thomas T. Samaras. Shorter human height has its merits and demerits. ISpectrum Magazine. July-August 2014, issue 08. Pp. 13-24 Download Magazine

Thomas Samaras.  Human Size: Short men live longer.  WN Feedback, World Nutrition. July-August 2014, 5, 7-8, 692 (13 of 22) Download Magazine and go to page 692

Thomas T. Samaras. How height is related to our health and longevity: A review. Nutrition and Health. 2012, 21: 247-261

Thomas T. Samaras. Shorter height is related to lower cardiovascular disease risk--A narrative review, The Indian heart Journal, 2013, 65: 66-71.

Salaris L, Poulain M, and TT Samaras. Height and survival at older ages among males born in an in-land village in Sardinia (1866-1915). Biodemography and Social Biology, 2012; 58:1, 1-13.

Thomas T. Samaras, Commentary. Human growth, height, size: Reasons to be small, World Nutrition, 2011, 2,3:108-135

Thomas T. Samaras, Ramifications of increasing birth weight, accelerated growth and greater height on health, the obesity epidemic, and longevity, Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine, 2010, 5(8): 433-449.

Killewo J, Heggenhougen HK, Quah SR (eds) Epidemiology and Demography in Public Health, San Diego, Academic Press, 2010. Longevity in Specific Populations, TT Samaras, pp. 415-420.

Samaras TT. Role of Height in Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease. Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine 2010, 51, 87-99. Download the article here.

Samaras TT. Are 20th-century recommendations for growth and height correct? A review. South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2009, 22, 171-178.

Samaras TT. How our adulation of taller height promoted the obesity epidemic? BMJ Rapid Responses, June 30, 2004.

Samaras TT. We are too tall. Public Health Nutrition 2009, 12, 439-440.

Samaras TT. Should we be concerned over  increasing body height and weight? Experimental Gerontology 2009 ; 44: 83-92.

Samaras TT.  Longevity in Specific Populations. In Kris Heggenhougen and Stella Quah,  editors. International Encyclopedia of Public Health, Vol 4, San Diego, Academic Press,   2008,  pp 142-147.

Samaras TT. & Desnoes J. Increasing human body size and its physical and environmental ramifications. Townsend Letter  Feb/Mar 2008, 295, 100- 122.

Samaras TT (ed). Human Body Size and the Laws of Scaling: Physiological, Performance, Growth, Longevity and Ecological Ramifications. N.Y., Nova Science Publications, 2007.

Samaras TT. Re: association between height and coronary heart disease mortality: a prospective study of 35,000 twin pairs (letter). American Journal of Epidemiology, 2006: 165: 113-114.

Samaras TT. Nutrition, obesity, growth and longevity in Starks T (ed) Trends in Nutrition Research, Nova Science Publishers, N.Y.,  2006.

Samaras TT. Nutrition, obesity, growth and longevity in Ditmer LF (ed). New Developments in Obesity Research. Nova Science Publishers, NY, 2006.

Samaras TT. Nutrition, obesity, growth and longevity . International Journal of Medical and Biological Frontiers 2007, 9, 223-262.

Samaras TT, Elrick H, Storms LH. Is short height really a risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke mortality? a review. Medical Science  Monitor 2004; 10: RA63-76.

Samaras TT, Storms LH.  Has our adulation of taller height promoted the obesity epidemic? BMJ, Rapid Responses 2004, June 30.

Samaras TT, Elrick H., Storms LH.  Is height related to longevity? Life Sciences 2003; 72: 1781-1802.

Samaras TT, Elrick H, Storms LH. Birth weight, rapid growth, cancer, and longevity: a review. Journal of the National Medical Association 2003; 95: 1170-1183.

Elrick H, Samaras TT, Demas A. Missing links in the obesity epidemic. Nutrition Research 2002; 22: 1101-1123.

Samaras TT, Elrick H,Storms LH. Height, health and growth hormone. Acta Paediatrica 1999; 88: 602-9.

Samaras TT, Storms LH. Secular growth and its harmful ramifications. Medical Hypotheses 2002; 58: 93-112.

Samaras TT, Elrick H. Height, body size, and longevity: is smaller better for the human body? Western  Journal of Medicine  2002; 176: 206-208.

Samaras TT and Elrick H. Less is better. Journal of the National Medical Association 2002; 94: 88-99.

Samaras TT, Storms LH, Elrick H. Longevity, mortality and body weight. Ageing Research Reviews 2002; 1: 673-691.

Samaras TT and Elrick H. Height, body size and longevity. Acta Medica Okayama 1999; 53: 149-169.

Samaras TT, Elrick H, and Storms LH. Is attainment of greater height and body size really desirable? (Guest Editorial) Journal of the National Medical Association 1999; 91: 317-321.

Samaras TT. Bigger people are becoming a growing problem. Earth Island Journal 1997; 13: 22.

Samaras TT. Why the future belongs to smaller sized humans. In FutureVision: Ideas, Insights, and Strategies,  Didsbury HF (ed). World Future Society, Bethesda, Maryland, 1996, pp 245-257.

Samaras TT. How body height and weight affect our performance, longevity and survival. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences 1996; 84: 131-156.

Samaras TT and Heigh G H. How human size affects longevity and mortality from degenerative diseases. Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients. Oct 1996. 159: 78-85, 133-139.

Samaras TT. The Truth About Your Height. Exploring the Myths and Realities of Human Size and its Effects on Performance, Health, Pollution, and Survival. 1994.

Samaras TT. Lets get small. Harper’s. 1995. 289: 32-34

Samaras TT, Storms LH. Impact of height and weight on life span. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 1992; 70: 259-267.

Samaras TT. That song put down short people but…  Science Digest July 1978; 81 (1): 76-79.

Samaras TT. The stature factor--how important is human size in the energy, pollution and economic picture? Electric Perspectives (Edison  Electric Co) 1978/6  9-16.

Samaras TT. The law of entropy and the aging process. Human Development, 1974; 17 (4): 314-320.

Body Size and the Environment:

The study of how humans affect the environment has been focused on the number of people in the world. While the number of people is certainly an important factor, the average body weight of 6 billion people also plays a major role. For example, a CDC researcher, Dannenberg, found that a mere 10 pound increase in the average weight of Americans increases airline fuel consumption by over 350 million gallons per year. The increase in carbon dioxide production due to this extra fuel was about 4 million tons. Over the last 60 years we have increased our weight by 50 pounds.

Airline and other transportation costs are only one facet of increased body size. Larger people need millions of tons of additional food, water, energy, metals, plastics and minerals. Huge amounts of additional trash, air and water pollutants, and farmland are also needed to meet the demands of larger people if there lifestyle is to remain unchanged.

Can We Afford Promoting Greater Height and Body Weight?

There are additional costs related to increasing body size. Larger people need more food and water, cloth to cover their bodies, bigger vehicles to carry them, and larger aircraft to carry them because they need more leg room and bigger seats.  Medical costs also increase due to increased medical costs. Larger hospital rooms, beds and toilets cost more.However the major cost is increased chronic disease that goes with the Western diet and excessive nutrition. We currently spend about $2 trillion for medical care in the U.S. However, C.T. Campbell predicts a cost of $16 trillion by 2030. Our findings indicate that a plant-based diet with moderate life-long caloric restriction would eliminate most of these costs related to health problems.

Published Findings:

The findings challenge many traditional beliefs about nutrition and growth and are based on about 35 years of research. Their studies have been published in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Life Sciences, Acta Medical Okayama , The Journal of the National Medical Association, Acta Paediatrica, Ageing Research Reviews, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Experimental Gerontology, American Journal of Epidemiology, Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine, and South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Other journals include Earth Island Journal, World Future Society, Electric Perspectives (Edison Electric).

Chapters on human body size have also been published in The International Encyclopedia of Public Health; Trends in Nutrition Research, New Developments in Obesity Research, and Future Vision: Ideas, Insights and Strategies.

Support for Findings:

Recent support for their findings has come from other researchers who have attributed lower longevity to the length of telomeres which are attached to the ends of chromosones. These telomeres shorten with cell replications and eventually stop replicating because most somatic cells can only reproduce for 70 to 100 times before ending their life cycle. Studies show that telomere attrition is accelerated due to building  and maintaining taller and bigger bodies and shorter telomeres are related to reduced health and longevity.

Where Samaras and his associates have Published Their Findings?

The findings presented in various journals are summarized in the book:

Human Body Size and the Laws of  Scaling

Physiology, Performance, Growth, Longevity and Ecological Ramifications

publsihed by Nova Science Publishers, NY,  in 2007. Contributors included Samaras, TT, A. Bartke, PHd. and D. Rollo, Ph.d.  The book has been reviewed by a number of journals.